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Hemoglobin(haemoglobinum; from Greek. Blood and Latin. Globus - bead), Hb is a respiratory pigment contained in red blood cells and carrying oxygen from the lungs to tissues, participating in the transfer of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs and helping to maintain the acid-base state in the body .
G. is a complex protein composed of heme containing Fe ions.2+and globin protein. In the capillaries of the lungs G. at connects 02(oxygenation) and turns into oxyhemoglobin, dissociating in the capillaries into Og and G. In the same place, C02accumulated as a result of metabolism, forms with H. carbhemoglobin, which dissociates into lungs in G. and C02. Connection 02and C02to G. is reversible. The adult human (HBA) contains 2 identical a chains (each with 141 amino acid residues) and two B chains (in each of 146 residues). The fetus g., Or fetal g. (HbF), consists of two a- and two y-chains.
The ratio of differing in their affinity to 02(in HbF it is higher than in HbA) of various forms of G. in the blood changes in the course of the development of the organism, which ensures greater stability of the fetal organism to a deficiency of 02. Q. G.in human blood 120-140 g / l and 130-160 g / l (respectively, in women and men). In children of the first year of life, G.'s quantity is higher (170 g / l and more) than in adults.
By the age of 14, G.'s number corresponds to its content in adults’s blood. The presence of hereditary anomalies in red blood cells is manifested in the form of hemoglobinopathy, especially severe in children.